For Manual Therapists conceptualizing bone is something of a challenge. Classical anatomy presents bone as a static, mineralized structure that treats loads as compressional, somewhat like a stack of bricks. The dynamic and self healing properties of bone are not obvious, and especially so its pliable qualities. However, bone is by volume 33 to 43% minerals, [...]
Our human skills and capabilities primarily emerge from the largest and most evolutionarily recent parts of our brains, which are collectively called the Neo-Cortex. These abilities are learned behaviors. When we learn a skill, essentially what we are doing is re-deploying a more ancient, reflex motor function to a new purpose. In the same way that tool use emerged from breaking open a nut with a rock, to hammering in bits of the Large Hadron Collider, the Neo-Cortex has learned more complex ways of interacting with the more ancient neurology of the brain stem and mid-brain. The Neo-Cortex does not in fact hold the hammer, but instead manipulates our Grasp Reflex to make holding the hammer happen.
SYMMETRICAL AND CROSS LATERAL LOCOMOTIVE REFLEX FUNCTION
Locomotor Reflexes are the primitive mechanisms that combine to move us forward (or backward). In some manner, we share these systems with all animals. These are dominantly Proprioceptive Motor Reflexes and sometimes labeled Tendon Guard Reflexes for their reliance on sensing tendon tension. Vision (not dominantly visual cortex) is most tightly [...]
Visceral reflexes are the most ancient cognitive mechanisms present in the human body. These reflexes regulate internal processes such as digestion and the function of the liver, processes which collectively are known as Homeostasis. Optimally, life at this layer swings between digestion and absorption of nutrients and energy, growth, restoration, reproduction and protective responses. For example, light is absorbed by a plant and then converted into sugar, which is at a later time fabricated into structures used for maintenance and growth. These processes change through time, but remain fixed in function regardless of where they occur, and are therefore time, but not spatially dependent. Viewed from the perspective of the three dimensional space they embody, they occupy a point, and can therefore be categorized as point patterns of the expressions of life. In humans, these point patterns are expressed in the cyclical processes of our organs, our viscera. Visceral processes cyclically change through time, independently of where the person happens to be.
I mention this paper because it has a pretty clear overview of the math involved in the bio-mechanics of human movement.
From the journal of the Serbian Society for Computational Mechanics:
Modeling Musculoskeletal Systems Using Finite Element Analysis
Muscles are organs whose primary function is to produce force and motion. Skeletal muscles
are attached to bones and can move [...]
Culture has a profound influence on the developmental trajectory of infants. Although somewhat obvious, it is highly educational to observe how setting and attitudes define the opportunities for growing children. The documentary “Babies” (2010) follows the first year of life of four infants across the spectrum of developmental options. Edited without commentary, it forces [...]